TRAINING / ENTRENAMIENTO
CHAPTER ONE: THE PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
There are tour recognised principles that have to be applied to training schedules if training is to be effective:
Specificity means just work on the areas you need.
Different sports make different demands of the performer and so the training should take into account those demands.
Training for squash will not improve shot-putting ability and improving aerobic capacity will have little effect on those sports that require anaerobic respiration.
Training, to be effective, must be targeted at the specific sport in which the individual is participating. This is known as the Principle of Specificity. So, you train for the sport you want to do.
However, aerobic fitness, muscular endurance and flexibility are common to many sports therefore specific training of the fitness elements for one sport may be of benefit to another.
Overloading body systems with higher work rates and increased loads causes the body to respond to these extra demans by improving its performance.
This is known as the Principle of Overload.
There are three ways in which overload can be attained:
2.1. Frequency: Frequency is the number of times training occurs. As levels of performance raise then the frequency of training is often increased.
2.2. Intensity: Raising the workload increases intensity. This could be achieved by increasing the distnce run during a training session, or the number of repetitions. Increasing the weight of an object such as in weight training is a form of overload.
2.3. Duration: Duration, or how long training takes place, is determined by the activity and the fitness of the performer. Increasing the duration of training is another way of overloading the body systems.
Although overload is necessary to improve physical fitness and skills level, this overload has to be progressive. Starting slowly and building up your body takes time to increased demands on it.
This means any adaptations that occur due to training will be reversed when you stop. This is why you need to train every two to three days otherwise you would lose the effects before the next session started.
THIS INFORMATION WAS GIVEN THE 14th MARCH 2013, WORKSHOP: ENGLISH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION ( ESCUELA DEL DEPORTE, JCCM) and this information belongs to Julia Mª Carrobles Arroyo)